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Proper preparation for testing is the guarantee of an accurate result and correct interpretation of the analysis

General rules in preparation for the blood test

Test must be taken in the morning on an empty stomach – there must be 6 – 12 hours between the last meal and the test. On the day before the test, light lunch is allowed. During the day before the test, exclude fat food, fried food and alcohol from your diet.
 
1 hour before blood sampling, abstain from smoking.
 
You should not take blood test after radiological and endoscopic examinations or physiotherapy procedures.
 
Medications, which can affect results of the test, must be canceled in advance, except for cases of control in the treatment with certain preparations. If you take any medications, be sure to notify your doctor.
 
It is important to exclude factors that can affect results of the test: exercise stress (running, climbing the ladder), emotional arousal. Before the procedure, you should rest for 10 - 15 minutes and calm down.
 
It is necessary to take into account the daily rhythms of changes in blood parameters. Repeated test should be taken in the same time.
 
Different laboratories can use different research methods and units of measurement. In order to get correct and acceptable results of the tests, it is recommended to take test in the same laboratory and in the same time.
 
On the day of test, small amount of water is allowed.
 
General rules apply to all analyzes, but some studies require special preparations and additional restrictions.
 
It is very important to follow the recommendations listed below, since only in this case reliable research results will be obtained.

 

 

Particularities of preparation for tests

A complete blood count
Blood is sampled in the morning on an empty stomach, 6 to 12 hours after the last meal. During the day before the study, it is necessary to exclude food with high fat content from the diet.
 
Estimation of lipid profile parameters
 
For estimation of lipid profile parameters (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) blood sampling is performed strictly after 12 to 14 hours of fasting. For 2 weeks before the test, it is necessary to cancel medications that lower lipid levels in the blood, unless the goal is to determine the hypolipidemic effect of therapy with these medications.
 
Bilirubin
 
It is not recommended the day before the test take ascorbic acid, medications or products that cause enthetic coloring of the serum.
 
Urea
1 - 2 days before the test, it is necessary to keep the diet: exclude rich for purine food (liver, kidneys) and limit amount of meat, fish, coffee, tea in your diet. Intensive physical activity are contraindicated.
 
 
Uric acid
 
It is necessary in days before the test to keep the diet: exclude rich for purine food (liver, kidneys) and limit amount of meat, fish, coffee, tea in your diet. Intensive physical activity are contraindicated. It is necessary to cancel such medications as caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, salicylates, ascorbic acid, antibiotics, sulfonamides, thiazole derivatives.

 

 

Preparing for blood sampling for hormonal tests

Total triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (free T3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (free T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
The level of these hormones should be checked on an empty stomach, to exclude the dysfunction of the thyroid. Test can be taken in any day of the menstrual cycle. Directly before taking blood, the patient should rest for about 20 to 30 minutes.
 
For 2 - 3 days before taking blood for analysis, it is necessary to prevent the intake of iodine-containing medicine. For 1 month before the test intake of thyroid hormones should be stopped (except for the special instructions of the endocrinologist). It is recommended to limit physical activity and avoid psychoemotional stress.
 
Progesterone
The test must be done on the 22nd – 23rd day of the menstrual cycle, unless the attending doctor specifies other dates. Test is taken in the morning on an empty stomach, i.e. between the last meal and test passes 8 to 12 hours. You can drink water. In case there is no chance to come to the laboratory in the morning, you should withstand before blood sampling the fasting period of at least 6 hours, excluding fat from the morning meal.
 
Prolactin
 
For 1 day before the test, it is necessary to exclude sexual contact and heat effects (sauna). For 1 hour before the test you must not smoke. Stressful situations can greatly affect the level of prolactin. Therefore, it is desirable to exclude factors that affect the results of research: physical stress (running, climbing the stairs), emotional arousal. Before the procedure you should rest 10 - 15 minutes.
 
 
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol
 
Physical activity (sports training) and smoking must be excluded the day before the test. For women of reproductive age (from age of, approximately, 12 to 13 and before the climacteric period), the analysis is performed on the 6th-7th day of the menstrual cycle, unless other dates are specified by the attending doctor.
 
Free testosterone
Between the last meal and blood sampling should pass at least 8 hours (preferably - at least 12 hours). Juice, tea, coffee (especially with sugar) are not allowed. Drinking water is allowed.
 
Growth hormone
For 3 days before blood sampling, sports training must be excluded. For 1 hour before blood sampling, smoking must excluded. The test is performed on an empty stomach (12 hours after the last meal). The patient should rest 30 minutes before blood sampling.
 
Human chorionic gonadotropin (НCG)
The test does not require special preparation.
 
PSA
The test should be performed before or not earlier than 6-7 days after a massage or  rectal examination of the prostate, transrectal ultrasound, biopsy, laser therapy, ergometry, cysto- and colonoscopy, or after any other mechanical effects on the prostate. It is important to understand that biopsy, prostatectomy or prostate massage can increase PSA levels for up to 3 weeks after the procedure. In order to eliminate any errors, the test of free and total immunoreactive PSA (with the calculation of their ratio) should be done using one method and same blood sample. Following monitoring is preferably to perform using the same method and in the same laboratory. It is recommended to abstain from visiting the sauna, riding a bicycle.
 
 
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
 
The day before the test, it is necessary to exclude physical activities (sports training) and smoking. For women, the test is performed on the 6th-7th day of the menstrual cycle, unless other dates are specified by the attending doctor. It is preferable to take test in the early morning unless there is specific directions from an ednocrinologist. Additional samples taken late in the evening can be useful in diagnosing Cushing's syndrome. For an accurate comparative evaluation in the dynamics, blood samples should be taken at the same time periods.
 
C-peptide
Between the last meal and blood sampling should pass at least 8 hours (preferably - at least 12 hours). Juice, tea, coffee (especially with sugar) are not allowed. Drinking water is allowed.
 
17-Hydroxyprogesterone (OHP)
 
Preparation for the test is according to the instructions of the attending doctor (for women, blood is usually sampled on 3rd – 5th day of the cycle).
 
Antimiller's hormone
 
For women, the study is performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle. For 3 days before blood sampling, intensive sports training should be excluded. The study should not be performed during any acute disease. For 1 hour before blood sampling smoking must be excluded.

Urine tests

General urine analysis

Before urine sampling,  hygienic toilet of the genitals must be done. Women are not recommended to take urine tests during menstruation. To get the correct result of the test you need: with the first morning urination, a small amount of urine (the first 1 to 2 seconds) release into the toilet, and then, without interrupting urination, hold up a sterile container for collecting urine, and collect approximately 50 ml of urine.
 
Urine analysis by Nechiporenko
 
Before the urine sampling hygienic procedures must be done. Average portion of urine, collected immediately after sleep is collected in a sterile container. With the first morning urination, a small amount of urine (the first 1 to 2 seconds) release into the toilet, and then, without interrupting urination, hold up a sterile container for collecting urine, and collect approximately 50 ml of urine.
 
Glucose in urine, microalbumin in urine, cortisol in urine
 
Urine is collected during the day: first morning portion is removed; all next portions of urine sampled during the day, night and next morning are collected in one container, which is stored in a cool place (+4 - +8 ° C) during the collection time. After the collection of urine is completed, it is necessary to mix the collected urine and immediately pour part of it into the container. The container with the urine sample is brought to the laboratory for studying. It is necessary to specify the daily volume of urine (diuresis) in milliliters.

Stool tests

Preparation: samples must be collected in the morning – after natural defecation. Collection of the sample beforehand is not allowed.
You should not do stool test earlier than 2 days after enema, x-ray examination of the stomach or intestines or colonoscopy.
The day before of the test, you can not take medications, including: lapactic, activated carbon, iron, copper, bismuth preparations. Also, do not use fat-based rectal suppositories.
 
 
Stool test for undetected blood
 
For 3 - 4 days before the test, it is necessary to exclude  meat (liver, beef, mutton), some vegetables (cucumbers, melon, cauliflower, radish, horseradish, turnip, broccoli, Bulgarian pepper, spinach, apples, beans) from your diet.
Also for this time, it is necessary to exclude excess amounts of vitamin C (not more than 250 mg per day), both in the form of preparations and in the composition of food products (citrus fruits and juices), and iron preparations.
For 7 days before the analysis it is necessary to stop taking aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (diclofenac, voltaren, movalis, etc.), and it is necessary to exclude alcohol.
Analysis should not be taken during menstruation.
 
Enterobiasis test
 
In case of independent sampling, the procedure must be done in the morning immediately after getting up from bed before performing hygienic procedures, urinating and defecating. Cotton swab is used for sampling: in circular motions take the material from the perianal corrugations, after that place the stick in a special tube. The material must be delivered to the laboratory on the day of sampling.

Spermogram

Ejaculate should be sampled after sexual temperance for at least 2 days and not more than 7 days. Prolonged (for several months) periods of temperance before the test can lead to a disruption of the effective process of spermatogenesis, the appearance of old, degenerative forms, a decrease in the quality parameters of sperm cells.
 
For primary evaluation of the ejaculate, it is recommended to do two test with an interval of at least 7 days and not more than 3 weeks. If the results of the two studies differ significantly, an additional analysis should be done. The period of sexual temperance in several tests is recommended to be kept the same to reduce the difference in the spermogram results.
 
Non-compliance with the time interval in sexual temperance, frequent intercourse can cause a sharp decrease in the total number and concentration of sperm cells in the ejaculate and their qualitative parameters (mobility, vitality). Do not consume any alcohol for 6 - 7 days before the spermogram. For 2.5 months before the test, it is necessary to try to eliminate toxic factors. Chronic intoxications (with alcohol, tobacco, narcotic, medicine, industrial intoxication and others) will lead to a decrease in the qualitative and sometimes quantitative parameters of ejaculate. Taking alcohol, narcotic drugs, certain medications and other toxic substances for 5 - 10 days before the test causes the uptake of toxic substances in the body and can reduce the qualitative characteristics of sperm cells.


When sampling biomaterial for PCR, the day before the sampling of material for the diagnosis of urogenital infections, for 3 days it is necessary to exclude alcohol and sexual contacts. For 1.5 - 2 hours before the sampling, abstain from urinating. Do not! do toilet of genital organs with soap on the day of the test.

Important!

Gynecological material
Do not sample for PCR after colposcopy.
Material from the cervical canal, the vagina.
 
A special preparation is not required.
 
Material from the urethra for PCR
Before sampling, the patient is advised to abstain from urinating for 1.5 - 2 hours. In case of purulent discharge, scraping is recommended after 15-20 minutes after urination.
 
Secretion of prostate gland
A special preparation is not required.
 
 
Material from conjunctiva of the eye, posterior pharyngeal wall.
A special preparation is not required.
 
 
Material from the nasopharynx.
Sampling is performed on an empty stomach or not earlier than 2 - 4 hours after eating.
 
 
Saliva.
For 12 hours before the sampling of saliva, it is necessary to exclude eating, alcohol and medications. Before sampling saliva, it is necessary to brush teeth without toothpaste, and then rinse your mouth well without using irritants. It is necessary to remove removable dentures, if any.